The Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty (INF Treaty) is a milestone in the history of arms control negotiations between the United States and the Soviet Union, but there are continuous disputes during its existence. From February 2, 2019, the United States announced the suspension of its obligations under the INF Treaty and officially started the withdrawal process. On the same day, the Russian president also announced the suspension of implementation. The factors behind the successive withdrawal are complicated and are related to the development of the international arms control system in the future. This papermainly focuses on the analysis of the reasons for the withdrawal by comparing the two sides under the same perspective through the levels of analysis.
The relations between Iran and the Western world has been deteriorating in the recent years due to Iran’s nuclear development. Iran’s nuclear program was firstly sponsored by the U.S. and western world, but now they deemed Iran is threatening regional security and world stabilization with its nuclear ambition. When facing the abominable situation create by the U.S. and rest of the world, Iran had no choice but to continually strengthening its national security. Fairly to say, Iran's nuclear aim is both motivated by its internal intension to be recognized as a powerful state and the external pressure that provoked it to pursues national security. U.S. and the western world could not risk letting Iran become an effective regional power with its nuclear capability, while Iran could not turn away from the temptation to hold nuclear power. The existing confrontation between Iran and the U.S. is not going to vanish soon. However, the U.S. should understand the consequence and backlash of its sanctions, construct a new method to resolve the current situation.
The Corona virus causes major changes in the world, among which China-Iran relation is to change more or less under the influence. The worsened relations with the US of both countries are expected to push the two countries to have a more intimate friendship; the bilateral cooperation and the common interests of both countries also demonstrate a bright future. On the other hand, with the impediment of the second outbreak of the virus, the uncertainty of Iranian attitudes, and the impact of other countries, the improvement of the bilateral interactions is not all plain sailing. The essay aims to give analyses on these factors as well as some reasonable predictions.
Blockchain is a chained data structure that combines data blocks in sequence in chronological order. It has the advantages of decentralization, immutability, distribution and transparency. Blockchain is mainly used in economy and finance, judicial practice, social governance, public welfare and charity, and other fields in China. As a new technology, the risks and challenges brought by blockchain include but are not limited to: algorithm security, convenience for crime, difficulty in determining jurisdiction, and inability to guarantee the right to be forgotten. To prevent blockchain risks requires to establish scientific algorithm rules, improve blockchain legislation, innovate regulatory measures, and establish a blockchain global governance system.
Motherhood protection means that the government provides protective measures to help mothers during pregnancy and childbirth. During Taisho period, there was a heated discussion over motherhood protection among feminists. The leading feminists in this discussion, Hiratsuka Raicho and Yosano Akiko, held totally opposed ideas towards motherhood protection. It is worth noting that the differences in their views are mainly due to their different life experiences. This heated debate lasted for several years, although it did not reach a concrete conclusion, it left a valuable legacy for later generations of feminists. Analyzing the reasons for their different attitudes and exploring the theoretical logic behind their different attitudes can provide lessons for solving the problems of low fertility and motherhood protection in Japan and the world today. To truly protect women's interest and promote gender equality, motherhood protection should focuses more on the plight of women due to childbirth than national interest, making becoming a mother no longer be an obstacle to women's self-achievement and personal independence.
Concerning about the international intellectual property protection and dispute resolutions, it is cannot be denied that WIPO and TRIPS regime of the World Trade Organization have an important role in the whole issue. However, recent years some of the problems of international trade frictions have exposed challenges for these two international organizations. This paper aims to review the history and development of the two international organizations, and analyze their organizational nature and responsibilities. While discuss the new challenges, this paper analysis the role that the two international organizations can play in the current international protection of intellectual property rights. And explore the possibility that in the future, WIPO will gradually integrate into regional dispute settlement; WTO would might give a full play to the characteristics of trade agreements and the possible adjustment direction.
The fan works are produced and widely distributed on the Internet, and are dependent on the original works, but have their own originality. Therefore, whether it is protected by copyright law and whether it infringes on the copyright of the original work has become the focus of academic debate. Despite the possible conflict of copyright with the original work, the law should not completely deny the legitimacy of fan works based on its own characteristics and public interest as well as the needs of social and cultural development, but should regulate the elements of its legitimacy on the basis of clarifying its legal attributes and seek reasonable ways to protect the legitimate rights and interests of the original work.
Algorithmic discrimination is a kind of unreasonable, unequal treatment based on algorithms, which is widely existing in all areas of our social and economic life. Compared with traditional discrimination, algorithmic discrimination is inherent, professional and concealed. In practice, both market forces and government regulation have certain limitations in regulating algorithmic discrimination. On the one hand, enterprise autonomy often fails due to benefit considerations, while industry self-discipline lacks a set of mature and effective rules. On the other hand, in addition to the lack of complete algorithm review mechanisms and accountability systems, government supervision is also limited by technical regulatory difficulties. Therefore, it is necessary to further improve the legislation of algorithmic discrimination, set up algorithm review institutions, establish algorithm review mechanisms and strengthen industry and enterprise self-discipline.
The Hispanic vote in America has traditionally leaned more Democrat in the United States. Appealing to the Hispanic vote as a political tactic has been popular ever since Kennedy’s “Viva Kennedy” campaign to reach out to Mexican Americans, which formed a large part of his victory. This trend will only continue as Hispanic-Americans are the fastestgrowing demographic in America. This paper analyzes the influence of four factors on Hispanic voting in the United States to try and create hypotheses to predict on what considerations must be made when predicting the Hispanic vote.