With the continuous advancement of technology, online transactions have gradually become the predominant mode of commerce in society. Currently, a new type of transaction facilitator has emerged in online transactions, known as electronic agents. This specialized concept and its legal definition originated in Western countries, and China has also adopted this concept. Electronic agents cannot be construed as natural persons, nor can they be fashioned as legal entities. They are merely tools capable of executing the will of individuals, albeit with some distinctions from conventional transaction tools. Establishing the legal status of electronic agents can reduce conflicts and contradictions related to online transactions in our current lives, facilitate the development of automated electronic transactions, and promote the rapid progress of our society. Currently, legislation in China in this regard remains uncharted territory, yet our lives are already enveloped by these online transactions. This has resulted in the inability to reach a unanimous resolution for many disputes involving electronic agents in our daily lives, leaving judges to resolve issues based on fundamental legislative principles or relevant legal provisions. The party employing the machine is often an organization with superior cognitive abilities compared to individuals. Therefore, we should consider electronic agents as their employees, and the actions they take should be the responsibility of legal or non-legal entities. It is essential to prioritize the protection of the weaker party as much as possible.
Implementation science is a systematic research methodology aimed at facilitating the application of research findings and other evidence-based practices into clinical daily routines. It has become highly relevant to scientific research. As the concept of "implementation science" deepens, related theories and practical methods continue to evolve, leading to rapid advancements in implementation science. However, in China, there has been limited application and slower development of implementation research. This study approaches the subject from a problem-oriented perspective and systematically describes several commonly used theoretical frameworks, methodologies, implementation strategies, and applications in implementation research. The goal is to support the development of implementation science in China, promote its integration into evidence-based medicine, and provide reference materials for conducting implementation research more effectively.
At present, with the rapid development of science and technology in China and the continuous strengthening of international strategic cooperation, the number of undergraduate students from abroad is increasing year by year. It is increasingly important to carry out curriculum ideological and political education for foreign students and cultivate all-around friendly and patriotic foreign students. Taking engineering mechanics as an example, this paper explores the methods and means of organically integrating curriculum ideological and political education into the course in the process of engineering teaching. This paper analyzes in detail the role of teaching method design, teaching technology innovation, and ideological and political scheme selection in the curriculum ideological and political education of foreign students. This paper demonstrates the organic combination of engineering teaching and foreign students' ideological and political education and explores new methods of curriculum ideological and political education for foreign students in the future.
In recent years, some influential mainstream media and new media have launched “warm-story” programme, which is favored by the masses of the people. However, there are many problems with the spread of warm stories, such as clickbait, superficial content, fake news, and the vague concept of rules of law. How to overcome these problems, how to write warm stories so that they can spread legally, how to develop warm stories in the future, and how to conduct legal communication with warm stories are all critical issues that must be addressed right now. This paper looks at what warm-story is, how it works, and what it says. It also talks about how warm-story is used in legal communication and what strategies can be used.
The State Administration for Market Regulation has referred to the concept of "essential facilities" in two regulations, and some courts have utilized the essential facilities doctrine in their judgments to recognize a defendant's refusal to deal as an illegal act of monopolization. As a doctrine originally applicable only to tangible properties in the United States, the essential facilities doctrine has gradually evolved through case law to be applied in the context of intellectual property (IP) rights. Nevertheless, there remains significant controversy in China and other jurisdictions as to whether the essential facilities doctrine can be extended to IP rights. Given the fundamental differences between intangible and tangible properties, as well as the core mechanisms of IP laws, greater caution and limits must be exercised when applying the essential facilities doctrine to IP. Specifically, (1) compulsory licensing should only be implemented when the IP in question is deemed an essential facility; (2) Article 7 of the Provisions on the Prohibition of the Abuse of Intellectual Property to Eliminate or Restrict Competition should be interpreted as "harm the competition in the secondary market"; and (3) in cases involving compulsory licensing, the court should examine whether such licensing would have an unreasonable adverse impact on the rights holder.
Sleep is such a complex and dynamic process and dream that it still is a scientific enigma. Over more than a century of research has established a wide range of dream-relevant theories, whereas, no one has yet reached an accurate conclusion about the function and meaning of dreams. So, in this project, I desire to review the relationship between sleep and dream and illustrate what is the function of sleep and dream. Firstly, is to state the specific processes of sleep. Humans undergo REM (Rapid Eye Movement) and NREM (non-rapid-eye-movement) during sleep. Additionally, there are various functions of REM, NREM sleep, and dreams which remain controversial. The third ambition of this project is to discuss whether dreams can act as a kind of therapy for mental disorders. And evaluate the effectiveness of lucid dreaming therapy (LDT) in patients suffering from mental disorders.
To anticipate the fluctuations in per capita disposable income among Hubei Province inhabitants for the subsequent biennium, a dataset spanning from 2005 to 2022 was culled. Employed in this study were three distinct time series prognostication methodologies: Exponential Smoothing (Holt-Winter), Autoregressive Moving Average (ARMA), and Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA). These techniques were applied to envision the forthcoming trajectory of per capita disposable income for the province's residents. By computing diverse metrics to assess predictive discrepancies—like the Mean Absolute Error (MAE) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE)—the effectiveness of the assorted models was gauged, culminating in the selection of the ARIMA model due to its superior performance. Capitalizing on this, approximations for per capita disposable income during 2023 and 2024 were extrapolated. The resultant prognoses project a sustained and noteworthy uptick in per capita disposable income for urban denizens of Hubei Province in the forthcoming biennial span. Ultimately, the findings were translated into actionable policy suggestions and deductions, rendering them highly pertinent for the dissection of Hubei Province's economic evolution.
The Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty (INF Treaty) is a milestone in the history of arms control negotiations between the United States and the Soviet Union, but there are continuous disputes during its existence. From February 2, 2019, the United States announced the suspension of its obligations under the INF Treaty and officially started the withdrawal process. On the same day, the Russian president also announced the suspension of implementation. The factors behind the successive withdrawal are complicated and are related to the development of the international arms control system in the future. This papermainly focuses on the analysis of the reasons for the withdrawal by comparing the two sides under the same perspective through the levels of analysis.
Taiwan-related issues is the core issue in the Sino-American relations and the unification of China’s territory is unchallenged. However, during the COVID-19 global epidemic period, the US makes some changes on its Taiwan-related policies and wants to play ‘Taiwan card’ to put pressure on China. This article will talk about some of the changes the US makes during this period. The reasons of these changes and the influences caused by them will be discussed as well.
The relations between Iran and the Western world has been deteriorating in the recent years due to Iran’s nuclear development. Iran’s nuclear program was firstly sponsored by the U.S. and western world, but now they deemed Iran is threatening regional security and world stabilization with its nuclear ambition. When facing the abominable situation create by the U.S. and rest of the world, Iran had no choice but to continually strengthening its national security. Fairly to say, Iran's nuclear aim is both motivated by its internal intension to be recognized as a powerful state and the external pressure that provoked it to pursues national security. U.S. and the western world could not risk letting Iran become an effective regional power with its nuclear capability, while Iran could not turn away from the temptation to hold nuclear power. The existing confrontation between Iran and the U.S. is not going to vanish soon. However, the U.S. should understand the consequence and backlash of its sanctions, construct a new method to resolve the current situation.
The Corona virus causes major changes in the world, among which China-Iran relation is to change more or less under the influence. The worsened relations with the US of both countries are expected to push the two countries to have a more intimate friendship; the bilateral cooperation and the common interests of both countries also demonstrate a bright future. On the other hand, with the impediment of the second outbreak of the virus, the uncertainty of Iranian attitudes, and the impact of other countries, the improvement of the bilateral interactions is not all plain sailing. The essay aims to give analyses on these factors as well as some reasonable predictions.
Blockchain is a chained data structure that combines data blocks in sequence in chronological order. It has the advantages of decentralization, immutability, distribution and transparency. Blockchain is mainly used in economy and finance, judicial practice, social governance, public welfare and charity, and other fields in China. As a new technology, the risks and challenges brought by blockchain include but are not limited to: algorithm security, convenience for crime, difficulty in determining jurisdiction, and inability to guarantee the right to be forgotten. To prevent blockchain risks requires to establish scientific algorithm rules, improve blockchain legislation, innovate regulatory measures, and establish a blockchain global governance system.
Motherhood protection means that the government provides protective measures to help mothers during pregnancy and childbirth. During Taisho period, there was a heated discussion over motherhood protection among feminists. The leading feminists in this discussion, Hiratsuka Raicho and Yosano Akiko, held totally opposed ideas towards motherhood protection. It is worth noting that the differences in their views are mainly due to their different life experiences. This heated debate lasted for several years, although it did not reach a concrete conclusion, it left a valuable legacy for later generations of feminists. Analyzing the reasons for their different attitudes and exploring the theoretical logic behind their different attitudes can provide lessons for solving the problems of low fertility and motherhood protection in Japan and the world today. To truly protect women's interest and promote gender equality, motherhood protection should focuses more on the plight of women due to childbirth than national interest, making becoming a mother no longer be an obstacle to women's self-achievement and personal independence.
Concerning about the international intellectual property protection and dispute resolutions, it is cannot be denied that WIPO and TRIPS regime of the World Trade Organization have an important role in the whole issue. However, recent years some of the problems of international trade frictions have exposed challenges for these two international organizations. This paper aims to review the history and development of the two international organizations, and analyze their organizational nature and responsibilities. While discuss the new challenges, this paper analysis the role that the two international organizations can play in the current international protection of intellectual property rights. And explore the possibility that in the future, WIPO will gradually integrate into regional dispute settlement; WTO would might give a full play to the characteristics of trade agreements and the possible adjustment direction.
The fan works are produced and widely distributed on the Internet, and are dependent on the original works, but have their own originality. Therefore, whether it is protected by copyright law and whether it infringes on the copyright of the original work has become the focus of academic debate. Despite the possible conflict of copyright with the original work, the law should not completely deny the legitimacy of fan works based on its own characteristics and public interest as well as the needs of social and cultural development, but should regulate the elements of its legitimacy on the basis of clarifying its legal attributes and seek reasonable ways to protect the legitimate rights and interests of the original work.
Algorithmic discrimination is a kind of unreasonable, unequal treatment based on algorithms, which is widely existing in all areas of our social and economic life. Compared with traditional discrimination, algorithmic discrimination is inherent, professional and concealed. In practice, both market forces and government regulation have certain limitations in regulating algorithmic discrimination. On the one hand, enterprise autonomy often fails due to benefit considerations, while industry self-discipline lacks a set of mature and effective rules. On the other hand, in addition to the lack of complete algorithm review mechanisms and accountability systems, government supervision is also limited by technical regulatory difficulties. Therefore, it is necessary to further improve the legislation of algorithmic discrimination, set up algorithm review institutions, establish algorithm review mechanisms and strengthen industry and enterprise self-discipline.
The Hispanic vote in America has traditionally leaned more Democrat in the United States. Appealing to the Hispanic vote as a political tactic has been popular ever since Kennedy’s “Viva Kennedy” campaign to reach out to Mexican Americans, which formed a large part of his victory. This trend will only continue as Hispanic-Americans are the fastestgrowing demographic in America. This paper analyzes the influence of four factors on Hispanic voting in the United States to try and create hypotheses to predict on what considerations must be made when predicting the Hispanic vote.