Advances in Social Behaviour Research

Advances in Social Behaviour Research

Vol. 2, 01 March 2023

Open Access | Article

Rooted Stereotypical Thinking on Gender and Sex—Discussion on Notions Against Homosexuality in Chinese Sociocultural Context

Ruochen Fan * 1
1 Hailiang International College, China

* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.

Advances in Social Behaviour Research, Vol. 2, 207-217 Advances in Social Behaviour Research,
Published 01 March 2023. © 2023 The Author(s). Published by EWA Publishing
This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Citation Ruochen Fan. Rooted Stereotypical Thinking on Gender and Sex—Discussion on Notions Against Homosexuality in Chinese Sociocultural Context. LNEP (2023) Vol. 2: 207-217. DOI: 10.54254/2753-7048/2/2022411.


The rooted paradigms of dichotomic thinking in modern societies have greatly limited human cognition and self-identification of gender identification and sexual inclination. It is against these biased yet prevalent pattern of dualistic tradition, a great number of scholars have contributed to the formation of non-dualistic theoretical stances, accentuating that the cognition of gender should based on the emphasis of gender fluidity. Michel Foucault’s power-knowledge theory has been long taken by the concerned academia as the fundamental theory embedding the non-dichotomic thinking paradigm. On the premise of applying dichotomous cognition to the analysis of the human gender cognition, this paper will firstly include an ethnographic analysis of the differences in people's cognition and definition of gender in modern society and particular small-scaled societies. This paper will also discuss the influence of the rigid impression of dichotomous cognition on the setting of control variables in many medical and psychological scientific researches. The concurrent scientific studies into sexual orientation and gender identification have largely neglected the influence of gender spectrum on human’s concerned cognition and self-recognition. The author would also include discussion of eth-nographic data from Chinese sociocultural context. In Chinese society, LGBT communities and homosexuality face various discrimination and inequality depends on people’s dualistic thinking and traditional Chinese social cultures so that LGBT people have to live in shadows. Through this study, a solid theoretical foundation can be established for relevant researchers to determine the theoretical framework of future empirical and experimental data.


Gender and sexuality, China, LGBT, Homosexuality, Sex orientation


1. Butler, J. Performative Acts and Gender Constitution: An Essay in Phenomenology and Feminist Theory. Theatre Journal, 1988, 40(4), p.519.

2. Foucault, M. and Hurley, R., 1990. An introduction. New York: Vintage Books.

3. Lehmann, H. Legal Concepts in a Natural Language Based Expert System. Ratio Juris, 3(2), 1990, pp.245-253.

4. Durkheim, Emile. “The Division of Labour in Society.” The Division of Labour in Society, 1984,

5. Busby, Cecilia. “Permeable and Partible Persons: A Comparative Analysis of Gender and Body in South India and Melanesia.” The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, vol. 3, no. 2, June 1997, pp. 261–278.,

6. Strathern, Andrew. “Gender, Ideology and Money in Mount Hagen.” Man, vol. 14, no. 3, Sept. 1979, pp. 530–548.,

7. United Nations Development Programme China. (2016). Being LGBTI in China: A national survey on social attitudes towards sexual orientation, gender identity and gender expression. Retrieved from

8. Wu, Jing. “From ‘Long Yang’ and ‘Dui Shi’ to Tongzhi: Homosexuality in China.” Journal of Gay & Lesbian Psychotherapy, vol. 7, no. 1-2, 2003, pp. 117–143.,

9. Burki T (2017). Health and rights challenges for China’s LGBT community. The Lancet, 389(10076), 1286. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(17)30837-1.

10. Cen J (2017, 11 21). Have you considered your parents’ happiness? Conversion therapy against LGBT people in China. Retrieved from

11. Chen X (2014, 12 3). A 75-year-old gay man’s life in Beijing. [Pheonix Satellite TV]. Retrieved from

12. Wang, Yuanyuan, et al. “Mapping out a Spectrum of the Chinese Public’s Discrimination toward the LGBT Community: Results from a National Survey.” BMC Public Health, vol. 20, no. 1, 2020,

13. Zheng S (2018). The growing threat of China’s HIV epidemic. The Lancet Public Health, 3(7), e311. doi:10.1016/s2468-2667(18)30098-7 [PubMed: 29976325].

14. Yang, L., Kleinman, A., Link, B., Phelan, J., Lee, S. and Good, B., 2007. Culture and stigma: Adding moral experience to stigma theory. Social Science & Medicine, 64(7), pp.1524-1535.

15. Kleinman A, & Guo J (2011). Deep China: The moral life of the person: What anthropology and psychiatry tell us about China today (pp. 237–262). Berkeley: University of California Press.

16. Hua B (2016, 9). Voices of LGBT in Shanghai [ebook]. [Douban]. Retrieved from

17. Hua B (2017, 8). LGBT research in China as a social movement. Paper presented at the meeting of World Congress of Gerontology and Geriatrics, San Francisco, CA.

18. Xing J, Li YG, Tang W, Guo W, Ding Z, Ding G,… Mahapatra T (2014, 4 3). HIV/AIDS epidemic among older adults in China during 2005–2012: Results from trend and spatial analysis. Retrieved from

19. Cao J, & Guo L (2016). Chinese “Tongzhi” community, civil society, and online activism. Communication and the Public, 1(4), 504–508. doi:10.1177/2057047316683199.

20. Yang, L. and Kleinman, A., 2008. ‘Face’ and the embodiment of stigma in China: The cases of schizophrenia and AIDS. Social Science & Medicine, 67(3), pp.398-408.

Data Availability

The datasets used and/or analyzed during the current study will be available from the authors upon reasonable request.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. Authors who publish this journal agree to the following terms:

1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.

2. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.

3. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See Open Access Instruction).

Copyright © 2023 EWA Publishing. Unless Otherwise Stated